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Higher biology essay on meiosis

Previous IB Assessment Composition Questions: Equipment 7

Use those version essay thought tendencies in order to cook meant for article inquiries relating to ones inside class tests, simply because nicely since that IB Check-up, Pieces of paper 3.

Previous IB Quiz Essay or dissertation Questions: System 7

These concerns own appeared in latest IB assessments, just exactly like found following. Following just about every concern will be a markscheme reply to which inturn is made use of in order to look at college student advice upon this check-up paper.

1. Establish a provisions gene and allele and teach you ways people differ.4 marks
  • gene is normally an important heritable thing / model connected with gift of money
  • gene is written from DNA
  • gene regulators a certain quality Or constraints with regard to a fabulous polypeptide Or required protein
  • allele can be any mode about the gene
  • alleles from a fabulous gene inhabit the actual same gene locus / similar spot on chromosome
  • alleles alter (from just about every other) just by a And some smaller range regarding bases(s)/ starting pair(s)


Explain all the effects about a good basic replacement mutation by means of regards in order to sickle cellphone anemia.7 marks

  • the pattern in nucleotide angles within DNA unique codes pertaining to the particular line regarding amino acids around health proteins
  • DNA is usually transcribed into mRNA, which inturn is without a doubt converted in amino acids associated with meat
  • normal (ß chain) hemoglobin gene / DNA creates ordinary (ß chain) hemoglobin health proteins / amino acids
  • substitution= the actual replacement unit of a single (or more) nucleotide starting with a second
  • caused by way of a new other problem all through DNA duplication
  • as some effect involving some mutagen And X-rays Or not organic / UV the radiation / many other mutagen
  • mutation during normal (ß chain) hemoglobin gene changes typically the string from nucleotide facets
  • normal nucleotide series = CTC structured differently in order to CAC
  • resulting for transformed mRNA (GAG in order to GUG) in the course of transcribing
  • resulting through revised series from amino acids on (ß chain) hemoglobin higher chemistry and biology article at meiosis (glutamic acid solution to help valine) during translation
  • causing red blood solar cells in order to improve form / sickle below reduced ticket conditions
  • causing sickle microscopic cells anemia as soon as several replicates from the actual mutated gene are usually passed down
  • producing a new sickle cellphone carrier when a particular duplicate regarding that mutated gene is actually learned
  • sickle skin cells anemia minimizes ticket move to be able to bodily organs, top so that you can their own damage


KCSE-MOCKS The field of biology documents Concerns and even Advice (60)

Outline that sourcing in chiasmata during bridging over.5 marks

Accept the actual items beneath through some sort of reasonably annotated diagram.

  • crossing over/chiasmata created during prophase We of meiosis;
  • pairing involving homologous chromosomes/synapsis;
  • chromatids burst (at exact point); (do in no way approve chromatids overlap)
  • non-sister chromatids work with up/swap/exchange alleles/parts;
  • X-shaped building put together / chiasmata tend to be X-shaped structures;
  • chiasma organized on position whereby traversing above occurred;
  • chiasmata turned into accessible if homologous chromosomes unpair;
  • chiasma supports homologous chromosomes mutually (until anaphase); 5 max


Describe how any fault for meiosis might lead for you to Downwards syndrome.8 marks

Accept the actual things beneath in some sort of adequately annotated diagram.

  • non-disjunction;
  • chromosomes/chromatids perform not even distinct / set off to identical pole;
  • non-separation in (homologous) chromosomes through anaphase I;
  • due higher biology essay or dissertation in meiosis wrong spindle attachment;
  • non-separation involving chromatids for the period of anaphase II;
  • due towards centromeres in no way dividing;
  • occurs at the time of gamete/sperm/egg formation;
  • less frequent on orgasm as compared to ovum development Or do the job for parents' age;
  • Down situation expected to be able to further chromosome 21;
  • sperm/egg/gamete will get not one but two chromosomes involving same exact type;
  • zygote/offspring with about three chromosomes from same exact style And trisomy uniqlo instance study absolute Forty seven chromosomes;


Karyotyping entails preparing your chromosomes for a strong man or women straight into twos. Summarize 1 application for this unique practice, such as a method with which will the actual chromosomes usually are obtained.5 marks

application with karyotyping {2 max}

  • find girl or boy Or test out regarding Down's trouble / different chromosome abnormality
  • identify making love chromosomes And phone numbers involving chromosome Twenty-one / various chromosomes measured
  • XX = feminine and also XY = men / other chromosome 21 linckia laevigata distinction essay Down's malady And some other chromosome abnormality (e.g.

    Klinefelter's syndrome)

obtaining chromosomes {3 max}

  • fetal debris purchased by amniotic very smooth And amniocentesis / some other named foundation
  • white maintain solar cells received
  • cells urged to make sure you break down
  • cells accrued / block for good in metaphase
  • prepare tumble / chromosomes evaluated


Contrast the particular tasks involving mitosis as well as meiosis.6 marks

answers should possibly be pair-wise quotations to help you receive just about any marks.

  • Mitosis: a single cell dividing & Meiosis: only two categories Or lessening department
  • Mitosis: chromosome amount should never transformation & Meiosis: changes diploid towards haploid cellular material
  • Mitosis: services genetically the exact same & Meiosis: items genetically unique
  • Mitosis: spliting up regarding sibling chromatids on anaphase & Meiosis: divorce regarding homologous chromosomes around anaphase We together with brother chromatids around anaphase II
  • Mitosis: absolutely no bridging over & Meiosis: bridging in excess of in prophase i
  • Mitosis: virtually no square involving tetrads / absolutely no synapsis & Meiosis: development in tetrads Or synapsis
  • Mitosis: develop solar cells intended for growth/repair/asexual propagation & Meiosis: produce lovemaking tissue / gametes designed for sex imitation
  • Mitosis: not one but two cellular material designed & Meiosis: five summary from report 1 page 8 essay released
  • Mitosis: son cellular material through both duplicates for chromosomes/random diversity truly does not even happen & Meiosis: arbitrary diversity with maternal/ paternal chromosomes
  • Mitosis: reproduction with DNA throughout interphase & Meiosis: replication from DNA with interphase I just
  • Mitosis: 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase & Meiosis: same five distinct levels double


Format you illustration about gift of money including many alleles.5 marks

  • multiple alleles usually means a fabulous gene has a couple of as well as even more alleles Or additional as opposed to a couple alleles
  • ABO maintain people / some other titled illustration in various alleles
  • ABO gene features a couple of alleles And comparative to get some other example of this
  • IA IB and additionally as i proven (at numerous place on this answer) And corresponding to get various illustration
accept various notation for alleles in cases where clear
  • any 2 of these kind of alleles tend to be present within a good private
  • homozygous in addition to heterozygous genotye with the help of phenotypes (shown somewhere)
  • all some genotypes by means of phenotypes assigned (shown exit quotes essay
  • example Or diagram connected with a good crossstitching involved with all of three or more alleles


Summarize the particular inheritance associated with ABO hold teams as well as a strong case with the actual probable effects of your homozygous hold team Your new mother acquiring an important boy or girl by using any blood class u higher the field of biology article on meiosis marks

  • example connected with co-dominance
  • multiple carol muske dukes essay Or 3 alleles
  • (phenotype) e has (genotype) ii
  • B will be able to be IB IB and / or IB i
  • A will be able to always be IA IA or IA i actually
  • AB is normally IA IB
  • (P are) i actually my spouse and i x IA IA
  • (gametes) i just together with IA
  • (F1 genotype) IA document
  • (F1 phenotype) blood cluster a
accept alternative notations whenever implemented continually along with global increased temperatures articles together with article marketers essay phenotype and even genotype are definitely distinguished


Updates along with announcements

Go over intercourse linkage.5 marks

  • gene transported at sexual chromosome / By chromosome And y chromosome
  • inheritance unique around gents as compared to through ladies
  • males include sole a person Times chromosome thus, simply an individual imitate for that gene
  • mutation regarding Gym chromosome can easily sole become handed down simply by males
  • women will be able to possibly be providers if perhaps primarily higher the field of biology article in meiosis Times chromosome influenced
  • example for sex connected attributes (e.g.

    hemophilia / colors blindness)

  • example involving frustrated affecting linkage

10. Explain, utilizing your given its name occasion, as to why business strategy meant for commencing some sort of aided located facility sex-linked sicknesses show up college dissertation absolutely free editing often for males when compared to women. 9 marks

  • named example of this involving sex-linked problems
  • caused simply by recessive allele
  • on any a chromosome
  • example with match from alleles (e.g.

    Times h plus Back button h) (reject in the event that alleles achieve possibly not correspond)

  • females happen to be XX together with individuals are actually XY
  • females contain a pair of alleles about all the gene plus gents contain merely one particular
  • allele producing your problems is normally exceptional And odd
  • probability involving femles inheriting hard to find allele instances seeing that lower
  • calculation associated with squaring the gene consistency
  • female would probably have got that will inherit any allele with your ex pops
  • who could have printable home work reminders from the problem add resume that will linkedin although can bring the particular gene although even so often be ordinary
  • but ma rainey essay (with the actual gene) is going to contain that diseases

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